CHAPTER 4: SAFETY ENVIRONMENT OF THE WORKPLACES IN SCHOOLS AND UNIVERSITIES.
It is necessary to solve problems relating to:
– analysing and disclosing the nature of the basic concepts related to health and safety at work, detection of adverse working conditions leading to accidents and factors for their elimination;
– Proposal of methodological basis for determining requirements presented in the form of rules and analysis of their key elements, providing of the safety conditions for education, training and work in the school;
– Analysing the methodological foundations for building health and safety conditions at the university to clarify the nature, content and characteristics of health education, health training, health culture and the risk factors for personal health and a healthy lifestyle.
4.1. Setting for the performed analysis. Methodological basis
1.1 Basic formulation Essence of the the basic concepts.
Providing and maintaining safe and healthy working conditions is an important area of the management of each activity and of the human resources employed in it. They are connected with the material conditions of production and any other activity. Safety and health conditions prevent the harmful effects of the working environment in working life.
The basic objective of providing and maintaining safe and healthy
at work is:
– to preserve the health and working capacity of the employed people;
– to protect them from adverse impacts and risks related to work.
In accordance with the set out in Ch. 2 theoretical and methodological foundations of safety and health at work, the content of the presented key concepts include:
-► working conditions, that do not lead to an accident at work. Working conditions are safe when allowing the labour process, as well as the learning process to be carried out so as to protect the physical and psychological integrity of people from outside influence. Occupational safety is linked mainly to property, plant and equipment that are available in offices, laboratories and workshops and to schools, to preventing risk of external traumatic injury (physical and mental) at work and training activities.
-► prerequisites for health, providing good physical, mental and social status of working people. Working conditions are healthy if they enable normal functioning of the human body. Occupational health is related to the used machinery, equipment and raw materials and to the conditions accompanying the labour process: air at workplaces, lighting, heating, etc. Therefore, they are related to the execution of the work function and the very presence of the person in the workplace.
The requirements for safe and healthy working conditions are interrelated, they operate simultaneously and have a common objective: the protection of life, health and ability to work.
The development of scientific and technical progress has two major consequences:
– firstly, to improve the material conditions of labour eliminating a number of hazards to life and health of the worker, as for example: as mechanization and automation reduce the heavy physical labour,
– on the other hand, the development and implementation of scientific and technological achievements create new hazards and dangers.
Adverse effects on the health and performance of people in the labour process. The adverse impacts include: • vibration; • noise; • electromagnetic radiation; • dust; • presence of toxic substances. Each of these effects can be eliminated or reduced the permissible extend.
4.1.2. Provision of safe and healthy working conditions
The provision of safe and healthy working conditions requires:
• preventing the risk to life and health;
• assessment of the risk, which can not be prevented;
• risk control at the source of origin;
• adapting workplaces, equipment and technology to the individual, in order to avoid the negative effects of work on health;
• adapting work processes to the level of technical progress;
• substitution of hazardous productions, work equipment, tools, workplaces, substances and materials with safer or less dangerous;
• Development of policy and strategy for research, control and preventive actions to ensure safe and healthy working conditions, covering technology, jobs, working conditions, the business unit of production and the social relations:
• providing information to employees and interested institutions in connection with the provision of safe and healthy working conditions;
• indicating of the existing hazards to health and safety.
The objectives of the management of the organizations include:
a) carrying out monitoring and analysis of working conditions and working environment;
b) developing programs and measures for preventing, reducing and / or eliminating the harmful effects of material factors and environment on the health and
performance of employees;
c) monitor the working conditions, the conditions of the working environment and the implementation of policies, programs and measures for safety and health. Safe and healthy working conditions in production, workplaces and work equipment shall be provided with their design, construction and reconstruction, modernization and commissioning, and during their operation, maintenance, repair and decommissioning. The management of the business unit should create workplaces with safety conditions and protection of workers’ health. This is achieved through:
• regular cleaning of the workplace and work equipment;
• Providing technical maintenance and eliminating all possible faults which may affect the safety and health of workers as soon as possible;
• checking and maintaining in good working order the protective equipment and means for personal and collective protection. When working with a risk to safety and health, which can not be eliminated, personal protective equipment shall be used to protect against the dangers for which they are intended.
When working under high neuro-psychological strain imposed by technology rhythm, monotony and forced posture and shift work, physiological regimes of work and rest should be introduced in order to preserve the health and performance of employees.
4.1.3. Accidents at work
Most often they result from the combined impact of several factors:
a) the improper actions of the worker, abnormal parameters of the working microenvironment;
b) dust above the permissible limits, noise, vibration, etc., the individual tendency to create conditions for accidents. The latter is related to: • temperament; • awareness; • tendency to observe instructions; • rules and laws; • natural curiosity and others.
Research shows that the majority of accidents are due to improper actions of employees and their individual inclinations. This requires all employed in the organization – from senior management to the individual worker / student to have a good knowledge on:
• the objectives contained in the policy and strategy;
• the organization created – monitoring, control, awareness;
• the events – programs, measures and others related to safety in accordance with their specific competencies and workplace. The main activities related to security and safety include:
• Analysis and diagnosis of the condition and environment; development of policy and strategy; development of programs and events; measurement and control for compliance with regulatory requirements.
4.2. Factors ensuring healthy and safe working environment At places where people work, there are risks associated with safety and health. The management team of every organization accepts this fact and takes responsibility for creating mechanisms for managing this category of risks. What is needed is a uniform policy on health and safety, which focuses on the key factors that are prerequisites for success:
Involvement of managers at all levels. Improving the process of managing OSH risks. Communication and dialogue between stakeholders (managers, employees, social partners) as a condition for the implementation of an effective practices of providing OSH. Training and involving the employees for the cause of providing OSH with a clear definition of the roles and responsibilities.
Existence of a mechanism for monitoring the performance and results on OSH in the organization – these are correctly defined indicators which enable making correct conclusions and decisions for prevention and management of safe and healthy working environment.
4.3. Analysis of constituent elements of the regulations for ensuring safety conditions of training, education and work
1.3.4. General provisions on the purpose and functions.
The regulations specify the requirements and represents guidelines for the provision of safety conditions for education, training and work (SCETW) at school. They apply to all participants in the educational process and work activity (students, teachers and other staff) and is required for settling their rights and obligations for providing and controlling SCETW. Regulations are updated on commissioning new facilities and technical equipment.
Scope and procedures for implementing the regulations
The regulations on SCETW apply to students, teaching and non-teaching staff of the school, and for those persons who are present on different occasions in the school building. For SCETW the established in the country uniform rules on occupational safety shall apply.
4.3.2. Terms, conditions and rules of safe and healthy conduct of education, training and work activity
18.104.22.168. Hygiene and health requirements to the facilities workplaces occupational safety
The regulations for occupational safety and health (OSH) for facilities and workplaces in the school are in accordance with regulatory requirements, breach of which leads to indictment. The teachers develop regulations for SCETW on the subjects they are teaching. .
The basic requirements to the facilities and workplaces for occupational safety relate to the maintenance of classrooms and laboratories for chemistry, physics, information technology, educational and technical means, sports facilities and others. They all shall meet the sanitary hygiene requirements by individual factors – micro-climate, lighting /natural and artificial/ harmful substances, noise, vibration, radiation and others. Special attention is paid to physical education teacher and to the equipment used.
The organization, order and discipline in class is the responsibility of each participant in the educational process. The adherence of the plan for work in winter conditions is mandatory, whereas at the beginning of the winter season the necessary fire-fighting equipment and tools required for the season shall promptly be provided.
When carrying out repairs in the school building the safety rules shall strictly be observed.
22.214.171.124. Fire protection
It is necessary to create conditions to prevent fires in the educational establishment, and for this purpose, constant monitoring of the compliance with fire safety requirements for premises for training and educational activities shall be carried out. Particular attention is paid to the use of electric heating and heating appliances, the fitness of the evacuation exits, fire fighting devices and equipment.
Attention is drawn to:
– in summer camps and holiday homes monitor the availability of fire fighting equipment;
– Compliance with fire safety requirements for conducting mass events – receptions, dinners and more.
126.96.36.199. Work wear and personal protection equipment
The protective equipment and workwear are provided under the terms and conditions laid down in the regulations and are used only for their intended purpose during working hours. The workplaces and types of work that require protective equipment and workware are determined, along with the conditions for their use. Warning signs and inscriptions shall be placed where necessary.
188.8.131.52. Indoctrination and training on the rules for ensuring safety, occupational hygiene and fire protection
An organization for the overall conduct of the types of indoctrinations, their scope, duration, subjects and programs are determined, as well as the officials who will carry them out.
The indoctrinations for provision of safety conditions for education, training and work are carried out by teachers and officials, as well as when pupils teaching and non-teaching staff or people from other organizations carry out alone or jointly the following activities:
– repair, installation and dismantling of apparatus and equipment;
– repair of various systems – electrical, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, plumbing and sewage;
– construction activities of the school building or school yard
– loading and unloading or transport activities.
4.3.3. Accidents at work and first aid.
An accident at work is any traumatic injury that has occurred during and in relation to or due to the work performed and any damage to health which has occurred as a result of exercising of profession.
All accidents that have occurred with employees and cause loss of performance for one or more days are registered. The victim himself or the closest witness of the accident shall immediately notify the school principal for each accident that has occurred.
It is necessary to use the regulations for training employees to provide first aid at damage to health of people during their work activity.
Knowledge and skills are required to provide first aid at:
• pupils going into convulsion; • occurrence of allergic shock; electric shock, burns; cuts and broken limbs; collapse.
4.4. Analysis of the methodological basis for creating health and safety conditions at universities
4.4.1. The status of the problem
Education, training and formation of future specialists at the university vary depending on the changes occurring in the socio-economic development of the country. Everything surrounding people, which is in line with his behaviour, demographic processes, morbidity attitude to their own health, as well as their highest values, have impact on educational process.
The deteriorating socio-economic situation in the world and the disturbed economic balance underlie the growing trend of emergence and development of “socially significant diseases.” The continued detention of the indicator for high mortality is a result of the emerging permanently unhealthy lifestyle of the population, particularly of the students. The hunger, malnutrition, abuse of alcohol and drugs, violence, early and unwanted pregnancy and others endanger the health and lives of people. The health education focused at developing skills for maintaining a healthy lifestyle significantly contributes to the health of students and has a positive impact on important health-threatening behaviours.
The personality of the students studying in the university, is facing considerable strain on memory, thinking and other mental processes, which could be resolved to a great extent if the students have better health education and culture, live healthy and apply health standards of living in their daily lives.
The university plays an important role in the acquisition of knowledge and skills that help students protect their own health and the health of others. Health education and training at the university is aimed at developing skills for effective promotion of healthy lifestyles.
The analysis shows that there are no comprehensive studies clarifying the role and place of health education in the formation of health education, awareness, behaviour, health culture in acquiring skills for a healthy lifestyle among the students in the university. The actuality of the problem is determined by the worsening health status of students as a result of widespread health risk factors. Foregoing gives grounds to determine the objective and the scope of the study.
Objective: to reveal the organizational and pedagogical conditions that promote optimal learning for the formation and implementation of skills for health, leading to a healthy lifestyle. This in turn determines:
– disclosure of the theoretical aspect of the contemporary ideas about health, health education, health culture, healthy lifestyle.
– developing a model for organization and realization of a healthy lifestyle, which is the basis of the methodology “Skills for Healthy Lifestyle” through training and education of students.
The scope of the study is the process of formation of a healthy lifestyle among students
To establish the extent of the impact of creating a model of a healthy lifestyle is appropriate to use the following indicators:
1. The knowledge of the future specialists with university degree of health education, health culture and healthy lifestyle.
The criteria for measuring the degree of assimilation of the concepts outlined; the main risk factors for human health; the core values of health that must have a future specialist.
2. The status of students’ motivation for better health, providing physical activity and performance.
It is measured with the help of the following criteria: The desire for acquiring knowledge and skills for a healthy lifestyle; the desire to raise the level of health culture; the inner conviction about leading healthy lifestyle.
3. The status of the skills, habits and abilities for leading a healthy lifestyle, providing good physical activity and performance of future health professional.
The criteria for its measurement are: the values of their vital parameters (e.g. heart rate and blood pressure); daily performance of skills, habits and competences for a healthy lifestyle.
The results are measured with the help of a three-tier scale: high, medium and low.
In the process of work it is appropriate to use presented in fig. 4.1 research methods:
The results of the survey on the issue are recorded.
The research was carried out through the following stages:
First stage Includes: Includes: study of the literature on the problem and existing researches, development of theoretical analysis and creating a research model
Second stage Includes: Includes: conduct of ascertaining research; summarizing the results establishing the status and the trends of the examined problem; approbation of the model.
Third stage: It includes: analysis of the approbation results.
4.4.2. Theoretical and methodological bases of the study.
184.108.40.206. Contemporary concepts of “health”.
The concept of “Health” should be regarded as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being of the individual and the community, not just as the absence of disease – fig.4.2. It is defined as a normal state and development of a living organism for a successful realization.
According to the World Health Organization health is the ability to realize the endeavours to meet the needs of life in relationship with the environment in which people have control over their own situation and the opportunity to improve it. Health is a fundamental human right and a sound social investment. A healthy lifestyle concerns anti risk human behaviour i. e. eliminating risk factors in his everyday personal life.
Modern understanding of the term “health” is that it:
– represents an aggregate result of the everyday life.
– “… is created by the people in the conditions of their daily lives, where they study, work, play and love. Health is created through: the mutual care of people; ability to make decisions and exercise control on the human environment; provision by society of conditions for achieving good health for all its members “(B. Borisov).
– “… the health is a state and a process.” Only health can to ensure complete physical, mental and social well-being of the individual and conditions for normal activity, as in the functioning of the internal organs and systems, and of the whole body in unity with the internal environment “(N. Koleva).
Overcoming unambiguous definitions of “health”, was formed concept of health as a basic category of medicine and polymer biological-social system.
The dynamic health continuum may be present in the phases shown in fig. 4.3:
The proper understanding of health as a general concept and category of medicine allows to get more complete understanding and definition of the of “public health” concept.
The analysis of the presented grounds of the studied issue justify the following conclusions:
– health of the person is a conscious state, duty and responsibility to himself;
– health is a phenomenon underlying the reproduction of human beings as biological-social being;
– health is a state of the human personality that is capable to use biological nature in harmony with the nature and social environment;
– health is the result of multiple human activities over the centuries.
The personality on itself changes its role in caring for its own health through health education and training. To overcome the medical and social problems affecting the health of students in the university it is necessary to create conditions for continuation of health education and training, and thus improve the upgrade their health culture and lifestyle
the personal development of future professionals in the university, based on the above, gives grounds to present an effective model of health education – fig. 4.4.
Model of health training of students
The analysis gives grounds to outline health as a process and a state of biological, psychological and social well-being; prerequisite for normal functioning of vital processes in the human body.
220.127.116.11. Health education and training at the university.
Health education and training held in the university is a process of deliberate, systematic, organized interaction between the entities aimed at mastering the standards for safe and healthy work and a healthy lifestyle. This is an effective organization of pedagogical activity, active spiritual and physical attitude of learning and experience, leading to positive changes in personality associated with protecting and preserving human health.
Health education reflects the regularities of processes of mastering of the system of medical, scientific and cultural values, developing human society.
In the university the process of health education and training is purposive, multi-factor, long, complex and systematic. It should be borne in mind that the process of health education and training has a specific structure and content.
Health education goal. Health education in the university as specific medical-pedagogical activity include: rising the formed health culture of the personality of the student; upgrading the mastered norms of a healthy lifestyle as a condition for the realization of vital and professional potential of the individual.
Health education in the university has its consecution and passes through interconnected relatively independent stages. Through these stages the health awareness and healthy lifestyles are formed. It is a process and operation of the development and improvement of physical and mental health of the student; supporting also his harmonious development as a potent active personality.
The goals of health education are educational, preventive and radically political.
When analysing the model of health education we have found that it passes through the following stages of pedagogical activity:
1. goal setting, planning and forecasting;
2. selection of content, forms and methods;
3. realizing the educational impact;
4. revealing the educational impact;
5. providing health education to the students through adjustment emulation and self-education.
Going through these stages a pedagogical correction is carried out; determining the contents of the health education of students; updating the applied tools and methods and conducting a pedagogical diagnostics.
Main tasks of the health education. The following tasks are solved:
1. Acquiring by the student of a certain volume of health knowledge: the environment; biology rights; human relations; health determinants; health risk factors, which are the basis and prerequisite for a healthy lifestyle.
2. Formation of health awareness through health beliefs and feelings of self-esteem and responsibility of the student at the level of attitude towards health as a fundamental value and motivation for health behaviour.
3. Developing social skills and habits for healthy behavior choices of the future health professionals; formation of adequate health culture and active attitude towards personal and public health.
Health education subject. The subject of health education in the university is student’s health behaviour contributing to his/her good health and comfort. It gives knowledge, skills, competencies and attitudes to choose a healthy lifestyle, including: healthy nutrition; sufficient physical activity; prevention of dependencies, smoking and alcohol abuse; healthy sexual behaviour; mental health and interpersonal relationships.
The stages of health education are: informational, emotional evaluational and effective practical.
The principles for presentation of health information are: accessibility, scientificness, reliability, specificity, popular language, preventive and prophylactic targeting, relevance, emotion, style of honesty and trust.
In the university health education performs formative, corrective, regulative, protective and controlling functions. It requires appropriate choice and skilful application of methods and techniques of education.
Methods of health education and training. The analysis indicates that the following methods may be applied: method of empathy, heuristic method, method of study, method of constructing concepts, method of hypothesis, method of forecasting, method of error.
Health training. It is a kind of training aimed at acquisition of health and hygiene knowledge, skills, habits and developing values, motives and self-awareness on preservation of health of adolescents. It is an integral part of health policy and public health education strategies of various institutions – governmental and non-governmental.
The health training has its:
– goal – achieving high health culture of society;
– subject – covers the process for achieving health education, the level of health awareness, availability of health and hygienic behaviour and healthy lifestyles among adolescents;
– object – the health of students and the factors determining it.
Different approaches, principles and models have leading position in the process of health exploration and protection. The leading approaches are: humanistic, healthy lifestyle, situational, integral, diagnostic, systematic-ecological.
The health education in universities is built on the following most important principles: objectivity and reality; orderliness and consistency; convolution; independence; debatable; scientific character and truthfulness.
The healthy lifestyle is the goal and the result of optimal flow of health education and the degree of completion of the health culture.
Building a healthy lifestyle in the future specialists in the university requires revealing and implementing its pedagogical problems, and they are:
* Outlining the place of a healthy lifestyle within the pedagogical system framework;
* Systematic health education and health training as a prerequisite for acquiring knowledge about health and building skills to promote mental and physical health of health professionals;
* Creation of a health educational information environment in the educational system;
* Stimulating self-education of individuals with regard to the choice of healthy lifestyle;
* promoting the teacher as a leading character in the formation of students’ skills for a healthy lifestyle;
* full interaction between the factors in university educational system and beyond.
Health education is an essential tool for the formation of the health culture of the future specialist. The process of implementation of health education is the process of formation of the health culture of the students studying in the university.
The health culture is an indicator of the effectiveness of the process of health education. The formed health a culture of the student determines his/her choice of a healthy lifestyle. The healthy lifestyle of the students studying in the university is his/her purposeful, conscious choice.
18.104.22.168.3. Health culture.
It a part of the overall culture of person and a system of knowledge, beliefs, values, habits, skills and behaviors aimed at meeting the need of protection, restoration and strengthening of personal and public health. Health education is seen as “… a specific way of organization and development of human activity presented in the products of material and spiritual work in the system of social norms and institutions, in spiritual values, in the complex of relations of humans to nature, between themselves and to themselves …”- fig. 4.5.
The essence of the concept of health culture is determined by the characteristics of the concepts: health and culture. The structure of health culture can be represented by three relatively independent components: health consciousness; positive emotional experiences related to the protection of human health and positive health behaviour – fig. 4.6.
Health education is a process of formation of the health culture. Their build up characteristics: humanity, responsibility, concern, empathy, sympathy and compassion are part of their health culture – fig. 4.7.
Health culture of the person contributes to the formation and strengthening of his/her physical and mental health for harmonious development as a viable and active personality. The end result of health education is the formed health culture, which is the basis and source for a healthy lifestyle.
22.214.171.124. Healthy lifestyle
The lifestyle is seen as “… integral way of life of the individual, the group formed as a result of interaction between vitality conditions in a broad sense and individual behaviours determined by the personal characteristics and sociological – cultural factors”. According to N. Koleva the healthy lifestyle is “style, a way of life” and is manifested by the realized by each individual “system of health and hygiene knowledge, skills, habits, behavioural stereotyped patterns of communication and activity in different life situations”.
The healthy lifestyle in the university is a system of vital activities suited to maintain and increase the health of the future specialist. It is a fundamental expression of the positive health behaviour of the students and depends on: the personal health culture, values orientation and health his motivation.
The criteria for a healthy lifestyle in the university are: health activity, anti-risk behaviour, self-help and mutual aid, psychological attitude, ability for interpersonal and intergroup partnership – fig. 4.8.
The university aims to give the students health motivation,
since it is generally a key driver of human activity. The main factors for the formation of health motivation are: the volume and content of the existing health knowledge of students; the place of the healthy lifestyle in the value system of the individual student; awareness of the need for health; student’s attitude to his/her health; specific momentary situation – fig. 4.9.
4.4.3. Health risk factors in the university
Health risk factors are elements of the human environment: climate, season, type of diet, stress, bad habits and others, creating the probability of occurrence of one or another disease. Groups with increased risk of disease may form in the presence of any of the risk factors
Risk factor. According To the World Health Organization is a factor is risky when it meets the following conditions:
* it has a connection with the probability of occurrence of a disease for which there is a biological explanation;
* the connection is stable and repeatable under the same conditions;
* after the elimination of the risk factor the changes in output are durable;
* the connection between the diseases have a one-way, correlated and independent;
* when at establishing a second indication in the presence of which the first connection disappears, the first indication is not considered a risk factor for the disease, although it remains its indicator.
The risk factors most frequently influence the body not isolated and alone, but in interconnected manner, in dynamically changing complexes. One and the same factor may be risky for a number of diseases. Such factor is smoking.
Negative health risk factors. Such factors are: smoking; alcohol abuse; substance abuse; risky sexual behaviour; not rational and balanced nutrition; low physical activity and psycho – social stress – fig. 4.10.
Smoking is a risk factor with proven high degree of harm to health of people. Smokers mortality is two times higher compared to the people who do not smoke. It has been found that there is a correlation between the risk of cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, ontological diseases and smoking.
Studies conducted worldwide have shown that young people who have little idea of the long-term risks of smoking are 4 times more prone to start smoking compared with those who are – well informed. Young people believe that smoking tobacco calms the nervous system and helps reduce stress. Study proves that the discussion and implementation of alternative methods such as: listening to music, going for a walk, exercising “yoga” and others, effectively reduce smoking among young people.
The excessive use of alcohol is a risk factor that can affect human health. It leads to addiction.
Alcoholism and addictions are socially significant diseases. They can lead to serious physical and mental damage, not only to the addicts but also to their surroundings. Alarming is the fact that the age drinking dramatically lowers. It is 12-16 years.
Effect of drugs. The term “narcotic” was originally used to name the substances that cause narcosis, i.e. unconsciousness or sleep, and later these are the substances that affect human psyche and his senses, thinking, memory and will. The effect of a substance on the human body depends on its concentration in the body and the dose. We speak about tolerance to the drug when it is with reduced efficiency of the human body. And we mean dependence when after a certain period of time following the use of an intoxicating substance the personality seeks a new dose for use. It is psychological /the personality is eager to adopt the new dose/ physical and /manifests itself in dysfunction of the body and appearance of abstinence when the intake of the substance has stopped/. The abstinence occurs with the onset of painful symptoms after abrupt withdrawal of drugs.
Nowadays we observe lowering of the age /12-16 years/ of the first meeting with the drugs. For this socially significant phenomenon judge also because of the low average age of the population dependent on drugs – 20-23 years. The main symptoms of addiction are: behavioural disorders; psychiatric symptoms; somatic symptoms.
The irrational and unbalanced diet occupy one of the first ranks among health risk factors. Main place in the consumption of food products occupy bread, sugar and animal fats. The consumption of foods containing antioxidants, especially in winter and spring, is low. The consumption of salt is high. This probably has to do with high mortality from cardiovascular diseases in the country. Irrational nutrition occurs in two clinical forms – malnutrition and obesity.
The low physical activity increases the risk of cardiac but disease, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, tumour diseases and others. It has been proven that 2/3 of the population leads a sedentary lifestyle, i.e. with a low level of physical activity. This explains the occurrence of major diseases even at a young age (hypertension, neuroses, etc.).
The risky sexual behaviour is one of the main factors influencing negatively upon the sexual and reproductive health, and from there on the whole welfare of the people. The end result of this behaviour is: unwanted pregnancy, abortion at will, early marriages and births, denounced marriages.
The health awareness and activities of each human person reduce the factors that are risky for health and for the choice of a healthy lifestyle.
Approach to promoting health.
The promotion of health in universities is the natural environment for the implementation of the concept of “Health for All”. An European network of universities which promote health joins the initiative of the World Health Organization. Historical analysis of the phenomenon of “Healthy Living” allows to find out that the positive behaviour of the student depends on his personal health culture; value orientation; health and motivation of his healthy lifestyle.
In a broader aspect we have revealed the essence of the fundamental concepts “working conditions” and prerequisites for “health”. We have analysed the accidents at work and factors ensuring healthy and safe working environment.
We have analysed the constituent elements of the regulations for ensuring safety conditions of training, education and work in schools and universities. The analysis focus is on hygiene and health requirements to facilities and workplaces, protective equipment, conducting indoctrination and training on safety, hygiene and fire safety.
The results of the survey confirm the importance of the problem of healthy living and its pedagogical dimensions in terms of university education. We have clarified the nature, content and characteristics of health education, health training, health culture and the risk factors for personal health and a healthy lifestyle.
The results of the survey confirm the importance of the problem of healthy living and its pedagogical dimensions in terms of university education.
4.5. Analysis of safety at schools and universities
4.5.1. Specificity of errors at safety
The safety of work conditions at schools and universities, taking into account their training profile, the knowledge and skills of pupils and students trained in them, are characterized by great diversity and are in a different state of risk. In many cases they are not sufficiently compliant with the regulatory requirements as well as with the modern technical solutions.
Ensuring the safety at work is related to the avoidance of errors and deviations from the rules governing them.
The error is defined as the failure of planned series of mental and physical activities to achieve an intended outcome when failure can not be attributed to chance. The error does not matter if the intention is not taken into account
as errors depend on two types of failures:
– the action does not happen as per the conceived intention,
– the intended action is not the right one.
In the first case, the desired outcome can be achieved, but it may not, while in the second one the desired outcome is definitely unachievable.
The varieties of the error is presented on fig.4.11.
Fig.4.11. The varieties of the error
Gaps in the activity. They are defined as unsafe actions of people (students) located in direct contact with the working environment. They can be typified into different forms: unintentional errors, omissions, unsuccessful attempts, errors and procedural violations. When unintentional errors and omissions occur the actions done do not match the intention. The difference between the unintentional error and the omission is that the first one is visible, until the omission is not.
Latent conditions. This perception is widely accepted in the understanding of
the failures at the working place. The latent conditions rarely lead to immediate
occurrence of an accident. Rather, they can be regarded as waiting for the circumstances to be combined in such a way that they could lead to a catastrophic outcome.
The latent conditions have two types of undesirable effects:
– they may result in causing errors within a particular workplace,
– they can lead to the formation of long-existing “gaps” or weaknesses in the protection.
Examples for that are the lack of equipment maintenance or the replacement of outdated equipment; choice of low quality materials; poor planning of work schedules, resulting in rush or fatigue. The latent errors can remain hidden in the system for many years before being combined with the gaps in the activity and the local unlocking mechanisms which result in the possibility of occurrence of an accident.
4.5.2. Analysis and management of the risk for improvement of the safety in schools and universities
The safety is a quality basis, therefore high-quality practice can not be achieved in the absence of safety, i.e. adequate risk control. The safety and risk are closely linked, as safety can not be measured directly but can be quantified if considered as “a degree at which the risk is reduced” with an increase in the risk of admitting an adverse event, the level of safety decreases.
In general, the risk is defined as “the probability for occurrence of the accident”. Consequently, the risk of an accident or undesirable event may lead to a lower level of safety. Risk management is therefore an important element of the overall educational process in the education system.
Risk management is considered as a process of identification, assessment, analysis and decisions leading to actions for achievement of the optimal balance between the risk, benefits and costs .
The assessment and risk management in the context of improving the safety in training can be presented schematically on fig.3.7, outlining the stages in the overall scheme of the process, the basis of which is the communication.
4.5.3. Constituent elements of safety culture of the students
Safety culture of students is defined as a deep-rooted conventional views, values and norms of schools and universities that govern the interaction of its students through attitudes, habits and behavior.
Safety culture -fig. 4.12- exists when there is a purposeful work with the involvement of all students, staff and leaders for maintenance of safety. Each participant is responsible for his safety and everyone around him is confident in the ability to speak without fear, when safety is compromised or when reported adverse events associated with it.
Fig.4.12. Safety culture and prevention
Constituent elements of safety culture of the students
The constituent elements are presented in fig.4.13
Fig.4.13. Safety culture of the students
Analysis of the nature of each element was performed.
School and university management has to engage the other leaders and the personnel in discussing, developing, implementation and sustainable development on safety issues. The leaders declare that safety is a priority, by supporting approved examples of behaviour and motivate the personnel to achieve the highest safety at work. They need to promote best practices.
2.Working in a team and collaboration.
Work in team and collaboration combine the talents and skills of each team member and serve as a verification and balance method. By encouraging the best ideas and assessing the decisions and actions of each member of the team, this method can avoid the top-down approach, which often interferes with making the best safety solutions.
3. Effective communication.
The communication promotes the exchange of information for students on technological issues of the working places and the environment. At schools and universities with a high safety culture, communication is based on mutual trust during planning and provision of care in service and repair of the equipment, as well as in the setting of objectives for achieving the best safety results
4. Measurements of care – processes and results
In order to monitor compliance with safety practices, it is necessary to identify the gaps in this respect and to understand the undesirable events that the students develop, the staff should collect them and report reliable information.
5. “Systematic” thinking.
In practice, all processes in educational organizations are systematic, containing interrelated components, including people, processes, equipment, environment as well as information. In educational organizations, safety systems are often cumbersome and poorly designed, and sometimes they may obstruct rather than support safety.
6. No accusation -culture of “justice”.
Since safety is carried out by people, some of them inevitably make errors. When potentially dangerous events occur, the organization may either review safety systems and learn from the errors, or accuse staff of them.
The culture of justice adopts the “no accusation” approach, which focuses on the “system” that has led to the error, not on the individual. Accusing the staff of mistakes leads to anxiety and fear and almost nothing is done to solve current problems or to prevent them.
7. Philosophy of zero tolerance.
Keeping a “zero tolerance” approach to safety is crucial for safer care. To minimize errors managers should not tolerate non-compliance with preventive measures of proven value. When the “best practices are known, they should apply to all staff. If the staff does not respect the safety regulations or best practices attention should be paid to them and not be ignored.
8. Theory of the human factor.
The theory of human factor detects how to increase productivity by exploring the relationship between human behaviour and the elements of the work flow (equipment and working environment). The aim is to make work easier and successful by removing the obstacles and use of aids.
9. Organizational training.
An organization in which training is a priority should support its members in their joint training, improve their ability to achieve desired results, adopt new ways of thinking, and make changes to their environment conducive to better care. An example of adopting a new way of thinking is the adoption of “packages” of prophylactic measures for prevention.
10.Evidence based practice.
An essential element in the safety culture is the use of evidence-based practice strategies for providing safety care. This requires making science a reality and standardizing best practices for achieving best results.
In a broader aspect we have revealed the essence of the fundamental concepts “working conditions” and prerequisites for “safety”. We have analysed the accidents at work and factors ensuring healthy and safe educational and working environment.
We have analysed the constituent elements of the regulations for ensuring safety conditions of training, education and work in schools and universities.
The results of the survey confirm the importance of the problem for the safe lifestyle and its pedagogical dimensions in terms of school and university education. We have clarified the nature, content and characteristics of safety education, safety culture and the risk factors for a safe lifestyle.